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Risorgimento privato: nuclei collezionistici familiari nei musei lombardi.
I Lombardi tra i Mille
1915-1918 World War I
Regione Lombardia
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I LOMBARDI TRA I MILLE (The Lombards among the Thousand)
The celebration for the bicentenary of Garibaldi’s birth have stimulated the research work and the examination of documentary sources about the Thousand which were less-known or to be investigated again.
In this context has been proved the importance of the”E.E Ximenes”fund, which is kept in the Archives of the Museum of the Risorgimento of Milan.
The Fund is made up of: the personal data of the Thousand, a document entitled”Elenco dei Mille.1905”(“List of the Thousand.1905”), another list entitled”Museo e archivio storico dei Mille.Repertorio”(“Museum and historical archive of the Thousand.List”),both edited by Ximenes, and personal dossiers of the volunteers.
Between 1815 (year of his publication of”Epistolario di G.Garibaldi”) and the Early 20th century, Enrico Emilio Ximenes is supposed to be the Director of the Museum and Historical Archives of the Thousand of Milan; he undertook a long gathering and verification work of the personal data(name,surname,date and place of birth,paternity,profession)of each Garibaldian who was registered in the final list(made up of 1089 names) published in 1878 by the Ministry of War of the Regno d’Italia.
During this hard and patient decades –long research work,Ximenes gathered a huge amount of documents(birth certificates,service records,memoirs written by the Garibadians who were still alive at the beginning of the 20th century,articles ,photographies and so on)and he ordered them in the previously mentioned personal dossiers about each”red shirt”.
The usefulness of Ximene’s work lies in the corrections made on the frequent inaccuracies and gaps in the list of 1878.
The exhibition “I Lombardi tra i Mille”had the purpose of making this precious research available, at least to the Lombard area.
Any notes quoted in each Garibaldian’s file are about information or corrections useful to a comprehensive view of each volunteer,on the basis of further subsequent research work as well.

The Album of the Thousand

The”Album dei Mille”was realized in 1862,shortly after the expedition,by the Milanese photographer Alessandro Pavia(1824-1889),who had workplaces in Milan and Pavia. He wanted to leave a photographic documentation on the protagonists of the extraordinary enterprise, which constituted a civic as well as economic purpose into the hoped and ambitious project of selling it to “100 libraries in the 100 Italian cities and to the surviving Thousand”. The project turned to be a failure,in spite of the promotional appeal of Garibaldi himself,because of its rather high cost(460 Lire). Nevertheless,his great publishing engagement is a unique source as for it is an organic and coherent collection of portraits of the group on “carte de riviste”format,a work that started in 1862 and lasted seven years with a large use of resources, in order to photograph, or have almost all Garibaldians’ photographs taken. There are various copies of the Album.
The Civic Historic Collections of Milan(Civiche Raccolte Storiche di Milano)own a copy given by Pietro Viola on the 23rd February 1959. At the Central Museum of the Risorgimento in Rome(Museo Centrale del Risorgimento)three copies are kept, one of which is dedicated to Vittorio Emanuele II,another one to Garibaldi and the last one was previously owned by the garibaldian doctor Timoteo Riboldi.
Two further copies are owned by the Civic Library of Cremona(Biblioteca Civica di Cremona).
The container album is a handmade article destined to individual buyers;the words on the covers are different on each album,as well as the ornamental patination.
The copy kept in Milan has a silky cover with the inscription”I Mille.1860”.
In the Album, the protagonists of the expedition are listed in alphabetical order(the first one is the scholar Giuseppe Cesare Abba); at the bottom there is a legend with number,name and surname of the portrayed person. Inside,as a separated booklet, the Indice completo dei Mille sbarcati a Marsala condotti dal prode generale Giuseppe Garibaldi(The Complete List of the Thousand landed in Marsala led by the brave general Giuseppe Garibaldi) was printed; it was published in Genova in 1867 and it quotes 1092 names with their place of origin.
It is an imperfect list because it was subjected to changes and variations until the 12th November 1878,when on the”Gazzetta ufficiale del Regno” ,supplement to the n.266, a list that established to 1089 the number of the Garibaldians who could own the right to medal and pension was published.
Bibliography Credits Garibaldini List Exibition Search